REVEAL SHOT

A SOPHISTICATED LOOK AT FILM AND TELEVISION

By

Re-post: A look back at the 1981 NFC Championship Game and other top-rated conference title games

(Reveal Shot presents a re-post of one of our first entries: a look back at the 1981 NFC title game and why it remains the highest-rated conference championship match-up.)

(Originally published Jan. 21, 2013)

 

Now that the San Francisco 49ers have made it to a sixth Super Bowl, there will be memories of the victory that set up its chance at that first ring, the 1981 NFC Championship Game.

That 28-27 win over the Dallas Cowboys, played on Jan. 10, 1982, set the gold standard for television viewership for a semifinal-round playoff game, generating a 42.9 rating and a 62 share, according to Nielsen data. It was seen by an average of 68.7 million viewers, at a time when there were roughly 77 million TV households in the U.S.

The game was followed two weeks later by Super Bowl XVI, which still ranks as the highest-rated Super Bowl in television history with a 49.1 rating and 73 share. (A ratings point equals 1% of the total TV households in the country; share is the percentage of sets in use tuned to a specific program.)

As great a game as the ’81 NFC Championship was, it is unclear at first glance just how it galvanized a larger portion of the audience than had ever watched before. After all, there were many great teams — the Miami Dolphins, Pittsburgh Steelers, the Cowboys, the Minnesota Vikings, etc., who played compelling postseason games.

I went back and looked at ratings and shares for every conference title game from the time the NFL-AFL merger was consummated in 1970 through the 1980-81 season.

CBS graphic 1-3-71NFCThe title games on Jan. 3, 1971 weren’t bad; NBC’s AFC battle between the Baltimore Colts and Oakland Raiders was a three-point game in the fourth quarter before the Colts pulled away to the 27-17 final, and CBS had a 49ers-Cowboys game that went to Dallas 17-10. That NFC game, airing from San Francisco’s Kezar Stadium at 4:00 Eastern, got the better rating that day, with a very solid 31.0 and 52 share, while NBC earned a 29.7 and 62 share.

1972’s AFC Championship game featured the 15-0 Dolphins against the upstart Steelers, who had finally won their first playoff game after nearly 40 years of existence — the “Immaculate Reception” game. Now, a week later against the Dolphins, the Steelers cut a 21-10 deficit to 21-17 with plenty of time left, but Terry Bradshaw threw two interceptions to put the game away for Miami. A fascinating storyline and matchup produced a 27.1/64, but that was down from the previous year’s far less interesting Dolphins-Colts game.

Two years later, Minnesota held on for a 14-10 win against a Los Angeles Rams team that always seemed snake-bitten in the postseason. Two controversial calls seemed to turn the tide against them this time, and enough viewers tuned in to give CBS a 31.0/66.

Before the ’81 game, the best rating for an NFC Championship came in 1979, on the road to Super Bowl XIII. CBS got a 36.7 and 57 share. However, this was no thriller; Dallas crushed the Rams 28-0.

What, then, shall we make of the surge in viewership for the ’81 postseason? (The AFC championship, a 27-7 win for the Cincinnati Bengals over the San Diego Chargers, also did very well, grabbing a 35.0 rating and 61 share, setting a pleateau for an AFC title game hasn’t been topped.)

One factor, as Saint Xavier University communication professor James Walker pointed out in an October interview, was that this was “the absolute height” of network television, a point at which the Big Three universe had their greatest number of viewers, with not even a huge number of independent stations to contend with, let alone the kind of juggernaut cable would become.

Several other TV ratings records were set around this time, across sports and other genres, though they have been surpassed in terms of total viewers because there are so many more TV households than there were 30 years ago (now more than 112 million).

The highest-rated World Series telecast occurred less than two years earlier — Game 6 of the 1980 Fall Classic between the Philadelphia Phillies and Kansas City Royals (40.0, 60 share). “Dallas’s” “Who Shot J.R.?” cliffhanger, which ended the series’ third season, hit the airwaves in 1980 (53.3, 76). The final episode of “M*A*S*H*,” still the top-rated U.S. program of all time, aired in 1983 (60.2, 77 share).

Secondly, the ’81 game probably is the best pure game of any conference matchup from 1970-81.

And finally, though the NFL surpassed Major League Baseball as the national pastime in the late ’60s, and the Super Bowl became the ultimate hype machine, there was a lull period during the mid-1970s that had to be overcome.1974 NFC

A New York Times article dated July 23, 1974 suggested that so many sports on television were leading to a kind of saturation, and ratings were starting to decline as a result. “Viewer interest … has dropped significantly, according to the Nielsen numbers, in such prestige sports as professional football, college football, pro basketball and hockey.”

CBS’s NFL telecasts had declined from an average rating of 16.4 in 1971, Nielsen said, to 15.0 in 1972, to 14.2 in 1973. Over the same span, NBC’s games had slipped from 13.9 to 13.3.

The only explanation that makes any sense is the ascendancy of the Dolphins, who relied on a grind-it-out running attack keyed by Larry Csonka and Jim Kiick. Friends of mine who were in their teens at the time say games throughout the league became boring, as teams tried to imitate the champions.

The rise of the Steelers, Cowboys and Raiders, all of whom had formidable passing games, brought back excitement for many fans, a perception that was reflected in late ’70s ratings and helped lead to the euphoric reaction of the early ’80s.

— David B. Wilkerson

Enhanced by Zemanta

By

The original ‘Ironside’ — Part II of a Reveal Shot series (NBC Tuesday Night at The Movies, March 28, 1967)

[With the Blair Underwood remake officially slated for NBC’s 2013-14 lineup, Reveal Shot continues with Part II of a series on the original “Ironside” with more on the two-hour made-for-TV movie that served as the pilot, as well as a wrap-up of the 1966-67 network ratings race. SPOILERS are present in this installment.]

Read A look back at NBC’s original ‘Ironside’ — the pilot (NBC Tuesday Night At The Movies, March 28, 1967) —  Part I.

With Ironside’s three assistants Ed Brown (Don Galloway), Eve Whitfield (Barbara Anderson) and Mark Sanger (Don Mitchell) established as characters, Don Mankiewicz‘s teleplay gets to the nuts and bolts of the investigation.

Ironside goes back to Commissioner Randall’s farm, where he was shot. It seems that the shell casings used in firing six rifle shots were never recovered. When the detective notes that six acorns have been spotted in the immediate vicinity, he deduces that a pack rat must have taken the shells and replaced them with the acorns. (Sigh.) In a rather lengthy sequence involving Wally Cox as the head of a Boy Scout troop, the rat’s lair is found — along with the casings. Apparently someone suggested that comedy relief was needed here, and alas, Mankiewicz ends up hanging one of the main plot threads on this development.

The shell casings are traced to a troubled Metropolitan Military Academy student named Tony Emmons (naturally, an expert marksman) who threatened to kill Ironside for arresting him after he fired a rifle shot into the window of a moving train. He was placed into a psychiatric hospital for juvenile offenders, but was released just days before Ironside was shot, by doctors who assumed he had been cured. Here, it seems, is our villain.

Throughout the pilot, director James Goldstone uses frequent, rapid-fire cuts. As the heroes look at slides of Tony’s mug shots projected onto a screen, Goldstone keeps cutting back to them, from the front, from the side, every time Ironside gets to a crucial part of the boy’s story.

Ironside finds out that Tony has a girlfriend, another former patient at the hospital named Ellen Wells (Kim Darby). He was very close to an art instructor at the academy, an attractive woman more than 10 years his senior, Honor Thompson (Geraldine Brooks).

The increasingly irritable detective is most anxious to speak to Ellen, but Ed has a hard time locating her. Ironside rides him about it until Ed, in Don Galloway’s most important scene in the film, has had enough. Read More

By

A look back at NBC’s original ‘Ironside’ — the pilot (‘NBC Tuesday Night At The Movies,’ March 28, 1967) Part I

[With the Blair Underwood remake officially slated for NBC’s 2013-14 lineup, Reveal Shot begins a series on the original “Ironside” with a look at the network landscape as it existed when the pilot aired, and examines the two-hour made-for-TV movie itself. No spoilers in this entry.]

In March of 1967, NBC, for the 12th year in a row, as network affiliates gathered for their annual meeting, was trying to figure out a way to catch CBS, the perennial ratings leader. It almost happened, partly on the strength of made-for-TV movies such as “Ironside.”

NBC President Don Durgin told the station owners that NBC was the only network to have increased its audience in each of the last five years1.

He unveiled a 1967-68 schedule that Broadcasting magazine found remarkable in its relative lack of half-hour situation comedies — and 30-minute shows in general. “There are only six half -hours of any kind on next season’s [NBC] schedule, compared to 16 hour series, two two-hour movie nights and one 90- minute program [‘The Virginian’],” the magazine reported2.

By the time of the affiliate meeting, NBC had aired 18 of the top 40 movies shown in primetime that season, including four that had been made for television by partner Universal. “Doomsday Flight,” the story of a plane in jeopardy written by Rod Serling, got the best ratings among the TV flicks, with a 27.5 rating and 48 share, followed by “Fame Is The Name of The Game” — which later morphed into the series “The Name Of The Game — at 26.7 and 443.

At midseason, the network found a new hit in a revival of Jack Webb’s “Dragnet,” made distinct from the ’50s original by its color photography, a new partner for Joe Friday in Frank Gannon (Harry Morgan) and the decision to place the year in the title as “Dragnet 1967.”

‘Ironside’ debuts

Just over a week after the Broadcasting item appeared, on March 28, 1967, “NBC Tuesday Night At The Movies” featured the made-for-TV “Ironside.” The network hoped that viewers would be intrigued to see Raymond Burr, who had just completed a nine-year run as Perry Mason, in a different role.

San Francisco Chief of Detectives Robert T. Ironside (Burr) is vacationing at Commissioner Randall’s remote farm. We see him in the opening scene, complaining about some bothersome chickens. “I don’t even like eggs,” he says. As he prepares a stiff drink for himself, shots ring out, hitting Ironside, who drops out of camera range. As the credits roll, Ironside is on his way to the hospital in an ambulance, as Quincy Jones’ rather hysterical first version of his famous theme blares. The trumpeters on the track seem to be using their tongues to get a kind of trilling effect.

Gradually we get reactions from co-workers and others, who have been led to believe that the chief is probably going to die from his wounds. Sgt. Ed Brown (Don Galloway) is seen in a police locker room, chatting with a colleague. “You know what he told me? He said the only excuse for a policeman taking a day off is death — his own,” Ed says, slamming his locker. Read More

By

The 10 highest-rated Academy Awards telecasts; ’70 show tops list

Former New York Times movie critic Vincent Canby summed up the 42nd annual Academy Awards ceremony as a show about mortality, symbolized by the toupees worn by Hollywood celebrities whose time had just about passed.

On a night that saw the X-rated “Midnight Cowboy” named Best Picture of 1969, heralding the dawn of a new age in film-making sensibilities, Canby was struck by the rugs worn by Best Actor John Wayne, George Jessel, Frank Sinatra, Fred Astaire and other luminaries of Hollywood’s Golden Age who attended.

“Even those who showed up in what appeared to be their own hair seemed touched by fraud, by an unwillingness to admit the passage of time,” Canby wrote, singling out the then 66-year-old Cary Grant as looking “curiously fictional.”

Canby also had a brickbat for perennial Oscar host Bob Hope, who was also 66 at that point, calling his monologue “limp.”

“This is the year that [Richard] Burton played a king and a queen,” Hope is quoted as saying. Burton played Henry VIII in “Anne Of the Thousand Days” and one half of a gay couple (the other being Rex Harrison) who own a barbershop in “Staircase.”

The mere possibility that “Midnight Cowboy” could be given the top Oscar must have had much to do with the fact that the Academy Award telecast of April 7, 1970, on ABC, garnered the highest ratings of any since 1960, when Nielsen changed its basic methodology in a way that makes pre-1960 numbers unsuitable for comparison.

The broadcast earned a rating of 43.4, with a 78 share of the television audience, according to Nielsen. In the much different TV world of 2012, last year’s show got a 22.6 rating and 34 share.

Ahead of Sunday night’s broadcast of the 85th Academy Awards, here are the 10 highest-rated Oscar telecasts since 1960:

Download (PDF, 28KB)

Variety’s review of the 1970 show noted that it was one of the longest up to that time, at 2 hours and 25 minutes, with no major award handed out before 10:40 Eastern. The show’s producers filmed a series of interviews with important directors, which the magazine said would be “well and good in a documentary, but in the awards show served merely to delay the proceedings.”

Elizabeth Taylor handed out the Best Picture award to end the night:

Though ABC’s telecast was the top-rated single show of the 1969-70 season, the network finished the 30-week period in its usual position for this era — last.

CBS narrowly claimed its 15th straight win in Nielsen’s full-season network rankings, with a 20.0 rating. It was still bolstered that year by programs with a strong appeal to viewers in rural areas, and people over 50, including “Mayberry R.F.D,” “The Jim Nabors Hour,” “The Red Skelton Hour” and “The Beverly Hillbillies.” “Gunsmoke” was in the midst of its late ’60s resurgence, finishing the season as the No. 2 show.

NBC was second at 19.8, with three big guns in “Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In” (No. 1 for the year), “Bonanza” (No. 3) and “The Wonderful World of Disney” (No. 9). ABC had a 16.4. Only two ABC shows cracked the Top 20: “Marcus Welby, M.D.” and “The Johnny Cash Show.”

Aside from a stint on NBC from 1971-1975, the Academy Awards have been shown on ABC in every year since 1961.

— David B. Wilkerson

New York Times film critic Vincent Canby reviews the 42nd Academy Awards, 1970 [subscription required]

Enhanced by Zemanta

By

Golden age of television, yes — but not for broadcast networks

There’s a perceptive article in The Atlantic this month that makes the case for this as a golden age of television.

The argument is that several original series on HBO, Netflix, Showtime, AMC and other non-broadcast outlets are among the best in the medium’s history, partly because the studios are now obsessed with franchises, and television is based upon them.

I agree that this is the best television era, though I would say that it’s because of the choices we have. The very existence of TCM, Encore Westerns, Cloo (silly name notwithstanding) and other specialty cable channels is proof enough, in my mind. And certainly the best serialized dramas of today stack up pretty well with the best in any decade.

 

Broadcast network television, however, was much better 30 or 40 years ago.

Let’s take a look at the top 20 broadcast shows for Feb. 4-10, 2013, a list dominated by CBS.

Download (PDF, 16KB)


The best shows on the current list, based on what I’ve seen, are “NCIS,” “Person Of Interest,” “The Big Bang Theory” and “How I Met Your Mother.”

Here are the top 20 broadcast shows for Feb. 5-11, 1973. This is Nielsen’s measurement of 70 TV markets, taken from Daily Variety’s Feb. 20, 1973 edition; the final numbers for the 200+ U.S. markets were released the next day, but for whatever reason Variety didn’t print out a full list of the shows and their ratings (though there was an article that mentioned some of them), so I used the preliminary numbers.

There was some difference between these and the final results — “Columbo” finished second, ahead of “Sanford and Son,” for instance. Essentially, though, these are the top 20 programs for that week.

Download (PDF, 16KB)

 

My votes for best shows in the 1973 ranking would be “All In The Family,” “Hawaii Five-O,” “Columbo,” “Sanford and Son,” “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” and “Cannon.”

“All In The Family” was then in its third season, a year that included masterful episodes such as the hilarious premiere “Archie and the Editorial,”  “Lionel Steps Out,” “Mike Comes Into Money” and “Archie and The Bowling Team.” The episode seen on Feb. 10, 1973 was “Class Reunion.”

“Hawaii Five-O” was at its height during Season 5. The show had its highest Nielsen ranking in any season, finishing at No. 3 with a 25.2 rating and 38 share. It aired what most fans consider its greatest episodes, the “V for Vashon” trilogy (Nov. 14-28, 1972), along with other standout segments  “The Jinn Who Clears the Way,” “I’m a Family Crook — Don’t Shoot,” the compelling if needlessly complex “Here Today, Gone Tonight” and the episode that aired during the week highlighted here, “Will the Real Mr. Winkler Please Die?”

The Feb. 11, 1973 episode of “Columbo” was “A Stitch In Crime,” featuring Leonard Nimoy as an egotistical surgeon who murders his colleague (Will Geer) during heart surgery and then has to dispatch a nurse (Anne Francis) who has figured out the scheme. Other great episodes from the program’s second season include the premiere, “Etude In Black” and “Double Shock.”

Of course there are clinkers on both lists. “Two and a Half Men” stands out as one of the really bewildering sitcom hits of all time, with or without Charlie Sheen. I never got the appeal of “American Idol,” especially the earlier rounds when so many terrible singers are on display. Admittedly I have a significant bias against the “Five-O” remake, but portraying McGarrett as a smart-ass destroys any credibility it might have had.

Among the ’73 shows, ABC’s made-for-TV “Movie Of The Week” was often mediocre at best; it seemed cool to watch theatrical films like “The Brotherhood” on television, but of course having them chopped up and presented in the wrong aspect ratio was a bad compromise. And there’s a reason why the Bob Hope of this period was so effectively parodied by Dave Thomas on “SCTV.”

Overall, though, I’ll take network TV as it was then. Maybe that’s why I spend so much time watching many of those shows on DVD.

A couple of postscripts:

By the end of the 1972-73 season, CBS finished with a 19.8 rating for the 30-week period, while NBC had a 19.1 and ABC brought up the rear with a 17.5. “NBC’s early-season lead was overcome by the CBS splurge after [the] turn of the year,” Variety said in its May 8, 1973 edition.

CBS was in the latter stages of a 20-year run of dominance that ran from 1956 to 1976.

I thought it might also be interesting to go back another 10 years, so here are Nielsen’s 10 highest-rated shows from the two-week period ending Feb. 10, 1963, eight of which were on the Tiffany Network. (I couldn’t find a list of the top 20.)

 

Download (PDF, 16KB)

 

Another valuable source for this post was “The TV Schedule Book: Four Decades of Network Programming From Sign-On to Sign-Off,” by Harry Castleman and Walter J. Podrazik, McGraw-Hill, 1984. 309 pp.

 

— David B. Wilkerson

By

Updated: 10 highest-rated Super Bowls in television history

Super Bowl XLVII, seen on CBS Sunday night, tied for ninth place on Nielsen’s Super Bowl ratings list with a 46.3 rating and 69 share of the television audience.

TV’s 10 highest-rated Super Bowls, updated through Sunday:

Download (PDF, 29KB)

In Super Bowl XIV, the Pittsburgh Steelers took their fourth world championship with a 31-19 win over the Los Angeles Rams. The telecast helped CBS win the 1979-80 Nielsen ratings battle over ABC, which had been the top network for three straight seasons.

The Ravens-49ers game is tied with the CBS broadcast of Super Bowl XIV, which generated a 46.3 and 67 share on Jan. 20, 1980, as the Pittsburgh Steelers prevailed over the Los Angeles Rams 31-19.

Once again it is clear that no event can galvanize audiences in quite the way that was possible 30-35 years ago when the Big Three networks were at their height, before cable became a true force and so many other electronic diversions were available. This is not meant to disparage today’s TV universe; greater choice has been a significant blessing.

In its Jan. 23, 1980 edition, Variety reported that CBS was propelled by Super Bowl XIV to a fifth straight win in the weekly Nielsen race, with a 22.5 average, with ABC second at 20.2 and NBC, very much in the throes of its terrible Fred Silverman era, at a  distant 16.2.

With the victory, the trade publication said, CBS “occupied first place in the season-to-date averages for the first time in the regular season measurements since April 18, 1976.”

As explained in the last post on Super Bowl ratings, ABC had dominated this period with its family-friendly lineup. However, CBS, which had ruled the TV landscape during a 20-year period before ABC’s rise to the top in ’76, regained its throne in the 1979-80 season, as the newsmagazine “60 Minutes,” which had been on the air since 1968, became the No. 1 show on television and “Dallas,” in its third season, jumped to the No. 6 spot.  All but two of the top 10 shows for the season were CBS programs.

 

 

By

Why 49ers’ 1981 NFC Title win set Nielsen record

Now that the San Francisco 49ers have made it to a sixth Super Bowl, there will be memories of the victory that set up its chance at that first ring, the 1981 NFC Championship Game.

That 28-27 win over the Dallas Cowboys, played on Jan. 10, 1982, set the gold standard for television viewership for a semifinal-round playoff game, generating a 42.9 rating and a 62 share, according to Nielsen data. It was seen by an average of 68.7 million viewers, at a time when there were roughly 77 million TV households in the U.S.

CBS Logo Light

The game was followed two weeks later by Super Bowl XVI, which still ranks as the highest-rated Super Bowl in television history with a 49.1 rating and 73 share. (A ratings point equals 1% of the total TV households in the country; share is the percentage of sets in use tuned to a specific program.)

As great a game as the ’81 NFC Championship was, it is unclear at first glance just how it galvanized a larger portion of the audience than had ever watched before. After all, there were many great teams — the Miami Dolphins, Pittsburgh Steelers, the Cowboys, the Minnesota Vikings, etc., who played compelling postseason games.

I went back and looked at ratings and shares for every conference title game from the time the NFL-AFL merger was consummated in 1970 through the 1980-81 season.

CBS graphic 1-3-71NFCThe title games on Jan. 3, 1971 weren’t bad; NBC’s AFC battle between the Baltimore Colts and Oakland Raiders was a three-point game in the fourth quarter before the Colts pulled away to the 27-17 final, and CBS had a 49ers-Cowboys game that went to Dallas 17-10. That NFC game, airing from San Francisco’s Kezar Stadium at 4:00 Eastern, got the better rating that day, with a very solid 31.0 and 52 share, while NBC earned a 29.7 and 62 share.

1972’s AFC Championship game featured the 15-0 Dolphins against the upstart Steelers, who had finally won their first playoff game after nearly 40 years of existence — the “Immaculate Reception” game. Now, a week later against the Dolphins, the Steelers cut a 21-10 deficit to 21-17 with plenty of time left, but Terry Bradshaw threw two interceptions to put the game away for Miami. A fascinating storyline and matchup produced a 27.1/64, but that was down from the previous year’s far less interesting Dolphins-Colts game.

1974 NFCTwo years later, Minnesota held on for a 14-10 win against a Los Angeles Rams team that always seemed snake-bitten in the postseason. Two controversial calls seemed to turn the tide against them this time, and enough viewers tuned in to give CBS a 31.0/66.

Before the ’81 game, the best rating for an NFC Championship came in 1979, on the road to Super Bowl XIII. CBS got a 36.7 and 57 share. However, this was no thriller; Dallas crushed the Rams 28-0.

What, then, shall we make of the surge in viewership for the ’81 postseason? (The AFC championship, a 27-7 win for the Cincinnati Bengals over the San Diego Chargers, also did very well, grabbing a 35.0 rating and 61 share, setting a pleateau for an AFC title game hasn’t been topped.)

One factor, as Saint Xavier University communication professor James Walker pointed out in an October interview, was that this was “the absolute height” of network television, a point at which the Big Three universe had their greatest number of viewers, with not even a huge number of independent stations to contend with, let alone the kind of juggernaut cable would become.

Several other TV ratings records were set around this time, across sports and other genres, though they have been surpassed in terms of total viewers because there are so many more TV households than there were 30 years ago (now more than 112 million).

The highest-rated World Series telecast occurred less than two years earlier — Game 6 of the 1980 Fall Classic between the Philadelphia Phillies and Kansas City Royals (40.0, 60 share). “Dallas’s” “Who Shot J.R.?” cliffhanger, which ended the series’ third season, hit the airwaves in 1980 (53.3, 76). The final episode of “M*A*S*H*,” still the top-rated U.S. program of all time, aired in 1983 (60.2, 77 share).

Secondly, the ’81 game probably is the best pure game of any conference matchup from 1970-81.

And finally, though the NFL surpassed Major League Baseball as the national pastime in the late ’60s, and the Super Bowl became the ultimate hype machine, there was a lull period during the mid-1970s that had to be overcome.

A New York Times article dated July 23, 1974 suggested that so many sports on television were leading to a kind of saturation, and ratings were starting to decline as a result. “Viewer interest … has dropped significantly, according to the Nielsen numbers, in such prestige sports as professional football, college football, pro basketball and hockey.”

CBS’s NFL telecasts had declined from an average rating of 16.4 in 1971, Nielsen said, to 15.0 in 1972, to 14.2 in 1973. Over the same span, NBC’s games had slipped from 13.9 to 13.3.

The only explanation that makes any sense is the ascendancy of the Dolphins, who relied on a grind-it-out running attack keyed by Larry Csonka and Jim Kiick. Friends of mine who were in their teens at the time say games throughout the league became boring, as teams tried to imitate the champions.

The rise of the Steelers, Cowboys and Raiders, all of whom had formidable passing games, brought back excitement for many fans, a perception that was reflected in late ’70s ratings and helped lead to the euphoric reaction of the early ’80s.

— David B. Wilkerson